“Case of the Week” 3: Tier 3 Human Trafficking

Important Disclaimer: As a free service, Case of the Week cases are not subject to the same editorial process and stringent quality standards as the COG 2010 sourcebook, are frequently contributed by non-COG authors, and don’t generally have extensive work put into them. Therefore, we make no guarantees of the accuracy or quality of the evidence presented, and you will often find material and sources in these cases that would not appear in the sourcebook. That said, we hope these cases will be useful to you; enjoy!

About the Author: This week’s case is by Caleb Hare of iCOM, infamous as one of the debaters who surprised the world with Duplex Printing. Enjoy!

1AC:  Tier 3 Human Trafficking

By Caleb Hare

“Human trafficking has been a problem since the beginning of slavery, while punishment for trafficking only began in the 20th century”

…according to Yelena Varpakhovskaya, chair of criminal law and criminology at Irkutsk Prosecutors’ Training Institute about human trafficking in Russia.

It is because we believe that Russia is not doing enough in the current system to combat human trafficking we stand Resolved: That the United States Federal Government should significantly reform its policy toward Russia.

Before we move on to tell you more about the problem, lets clarify some key terms in today’s debate round in…

Observation 1:  Definitions

Significant: important in effect or meaning (Princeton WordNet) wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Reform: to improve by alteration, substitution, or abolition  (Dictionary.com) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/reform

Observation 2: Inherency

Point 1: Russia is placed on Tier 2 Watch List.

U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2009 http://gvnet.com/humantrafficking/Russia-2.htm

“Russia is placed on Tier 2 Watch List.”

Point 2: Inadequate efforts warrant a Tier 3 ranking

US Department of State, June 2007, “Introduction to State Department’s 2007 Trafficking in Persons Report”, http://www.america.gov/st/texttrans-english/2007/June/20070612102823eaifas0.9481623.html

The Department first evaluates whether the government fully complies with the TVPA’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking (detailed on pp. 228-229). Governments that do fully comply are placed in Tier 1. For other governments, the Department considers whether they are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance. Governments that are making significant efforts to meet the minimum standards are placed in Tier 2. Governments that do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so are placed in Tier 3. Finally, the Special Watch List criteria are considered and, when applicable, Tier 2 countries are placed on the Tier 2 Watch List.

Observation 3: Significance

Point 1: Russia has a large human trafficking problem

U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2009 http://gvnet.com/humantrafficking/Russia-2.htm

Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Men and women from the Russian Far East are trafficked to South Korea, China, Bahrain, Oman, Japan, and South Korea for purposes of sexual exploitation, debt bondage, and forced labor, including in the agricultural and fishing sectors. Some Russian women are trafficked to Turkey, Greece, South Africa, Germany, Poland, Italy, Israel, Spain, Vietnam, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, and the Middle East for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. Men and women from Central Asia and Ukraine are trafficked to the Russian Far East for the purpose of forced labor, including victims trafficked for forced labor in the fishing industry.

Point 2: Tier 3 justified

A) Tier 2 watch list for 7 years

Mitch Potter (Washington Bureau chief of the Toronto Star), June 19, 2010, Toronto Star, “G20 Girls: Failing marks for Russia on human trafficking”, http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/torontog20summit/article/825619–failing-marks-for-russia-on-human-trafficking

Russia doesn’t like outsiders, least of all the United States, pointing out such ugly realities. But that’s precisely what transpired last week when Secretary of State Hillary Clinton unveiled America’s 2010 report on human trafficking, which for the seventh consecutive year placed Russia on its Tier 2 Watch List.

B) Russian performance inadequate

Lauren McCarthy (PhD candidate in the political science at the University of Wisconsin–Madison where she also got her MA, Her research focuses on Russian law enforcement and the legal system along with human trafficking), Winter 2010, Demokratizatsiya Journal of post-Soviet Democratization, “Beyond Corruption: An Assessment of Russian Law Enforcement’s Fight Against Human Trafficking”, http://www.demokratizatsiya.org/issues/winter%202010/mccarthy.html

Over the past two decades, human trafficking has become an increasingly serious problem for Russia. Because it has been framed as a manifestation of transnational organized crime, law enforcement has the primary role in making sure that traffickers are found and punished. Russia’s performance in dealing with the problem, however, has been roundly criticized by domestic and foreign actors alike. As of October 2007-despite the December 2003 passage of a law criminalizing human trafficking-of the over 350 cases of human trafficking registered under the new law, only 10 of them had been brought to court.

C) Politics prevent Russia being ranked Tier 3

The Not For Sale Campaign (an anti-slavery orginization which combines technology, intellectual capital, abolitionist groups and a growing network of individuals ljoined together to end slavery in our lifetime), Updated 2009, “About Us Slavery”, http://www.notforsalecampaign.org/about/slavery/

The 2006 TIP Report confirms that bias that plays a strong role in the evaluation process. Among only a handful of nations relegated to Tier 3 can be found Cuba, Burma, Venezuela, North Korea, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Syria, and Iran. These nations just happen to be on not-so-friendly terms with the U.S. government. Meanwhile, countries like Albania, Romania, Serbia, Russia, India, Israel, Turkey, and Thailand, all of which have an abysmal record on trafficking, do not receive a Tier 3 ranking.

Impact: Because Russia has taken inadequate efforts to stop human trafficking and is only kept on the Tier 2 watchlist by politics, we feel that a Tier 3 ranking is justified, which we implement in the following plan…

Observation 4:  Plan:
Mandate: The US State Department will place Russia into the Tier 3 category of the Trafficking in Persons Report.

Agency and enforcement: the United States federal government

Observation 5: Solvency

Solvency point 1: Historical Precedent shows that Tier 3 works
The Washington Post June 13, 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn…061202180.html
Rep. Christopher H. Smith (R-N.J.), who sponsored the law that requires the report, said that “India in particular, and China, ought to be tier three countries,” In previous years, he said, countries such as Greece, Turkey, Israel and South Korea were placed in tier three. “As soon as they got placed in that category, the governments there closed brothels, arrested go-betweens and liberated women.”

Solvency point 2: TIP Report has spurred some previously deficient governments to adopt anti trafficking measures
Government Accountability Office, July 2006, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06825.pdf
The Trafficking in Persons Report has raised global awareness about human trafficking and spurred some governments that had failed to comply with the minimum standards to adopt anti trafficking measures. According to U.S. government and international organization officials and representatives of trafficking victim advocacy groups, this is due to the combination of a public assessment of foreign governments’ anti trafficking efforts and potential economic consequences for those that fail to meet minimum standards and do not make an effort to do so.

Solvency point 3: Tier placements increase countries efforts
Government Accountability Office, July 2006, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06825.pdf
U.S. government officials cited a number of cases in which foreign governments improved their antitrafficking efforts in response to their tier placements. For example, State and USAID officials cited the case of Jamaica, a source country for child trafficking into the sex trade, which was placed on tier 3 in the 2005 report. The country narrative noted deficiencies in Jamaica’s antitrafficking measures and reported that the government was not making significant efforts to comply with the minimum standards. Jamaica failed to investigate, prosecute, or convict any traffickers during the previous year, despite the passage of a law to protect minors. In response, the Jamaican government created an antitrafficking unit within its police force and conducted raids that led to nine trafficking-related arrests.

In ending I’d like to read a quote by Mitch Potter on Russia’s trafficking situation:

Mitch Potter (Washington Bureau chief of the Toronto Star), June 19, 2010, Toronto Star, “G20 Girls: Failing marks for Russia on human trafficking”, http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/torontog20summit/article/825619–failing-marks-for-russia-on-human-trafficking

Worse, Moscow’s main shelter and rehabilitation centre for escapees of sex and labour trafficking, a facility launched in 2006 with foreign assistance, was shuttered last November due to lack of funds. After helping 423 victims put their lives back together, there suddenly was no room at the inn. There suddenly was no inn, period.

This is what is happening across Russia. US action can help stop this human trafficking problem. The question is will the political barrier be overcome? It’s up to you.


Backup: Tier 3

Significance

1. Russia closes all but 2 trafficking help centers

by Amanda Kloer, Change.org (Change.org is an online hub for social change. We run leading online communities for 20 major causes ranging from homelessness to women’s rights to poverty, and through a team of 100 expert writers and 3,000 nonprofit partners, we serve as the central platform for launching and promoting movements for social change on the web.) “Russia Closes All But Two Human Trafficking Help Centers” Published at http://humantrafficking.change.org/b…g_help_centers.  Published May 29, 2010; accessed June 22, 2010

“The Russian government made drastic cuts to its human trafficking assistance services this week, reducing the number of funded help centers to just two in the whole country. Only two places for trafficked people to get help in one of the largest countries in the world with a well-documented human trafficking problem? Someone must have gotten into the vodka a little early in order to make that call.”

2. Russia is the Center of trafficking and is not trying to solve the problem

by Amanda Kloer, Change.org (Change.org is an online hub for social change. We run leading online communities for 20 major causes ranging from homelessness to women’s rights to poverty, and through a team of 100 expert writers and 3,000 nonprofit partners, we serve as the central platform for launching and promoting movements for social change on the web.) “Russia Closes All But Two Human Trafficking Help Centers” Published at http://humantrafficking.change.org/b…g_help_centers.  Published May 29, 2010; accessed June 22, 2010

“Russia is perhaps the center of European human trafficking. Women are trafficked from Russia to Western Europe, and many Eastern European women are trafficked through Russia. Russian and Eastern European women are also trafficked to the U.S., Japan, and the Caribbean, among other places. And yet, Russian authorities have repeatedly claimed that they have no responsibility for the men, women, and girls who are lured overseas and then enslaved, or the ones passed through Russia by foreign nationals. And now, they are making it almost impossible for victims who are returning to Russia to find help.”

3. Russia abandoning trafficking victims

Tom Balmforth (Master’s degree in Politics, Security, and Integration from the School of Slavonic and East European Studies in London, writer for the Russia Profile.org), July 6, 2010, “Trafficked and Unsheltered”, http://www.russiaprofile.org/page.php?pageid=International&articleid=a1278438511

Victims of human trafficking in Russia are being left to fend almost entirely for themselves this year, as support shelters are closed in response to cuts in foreign funding. The Russian government still lacks an action plan on human trafficking, which means it cannot allocate federal funds to keep the centers running, say NGO workers.

4. Russia not dealing with trafficking

Sky News (British news service), May 27, 2010, “Russia Cuts Support For Trafficking Victims”, http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Russia-Accused-Of-Being-Complicit-Over-Sex-Trafficking-As-It-Closes-Foreign-Backed-Help-Centres/Article/201005415638768

There are now only two support centres for the victims of sex trafficking in the whole of Russia. There is also no separate law here specifically targeting human trafficking – just a sub clause of the criminal code. Those who used to run help centres say the post-Soviet states are a breeding ground for human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Alyona Arlashkina used to work with trafficked women at the Angel Coalition centre, before it was closed. “There are so many vulnerable young women in Russia who believe a fairytale lies outside,” she said. “The government needs to face this problem and deal with it.”

Inherency

3. Trafficking problem growing

Sky News (British news source) “Russian Prostitution Boosted By Boom” Published at http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Sky…20080641318224.  Published June 6, 2008; accessed June 22, 2010

“Unofficial estimates suggest there are as many as 200,000 women trapped in a life of prostitution in Moscow alone.
The problem is also concerning health officials who say the rise in prostitution is fuelling an epidemic in sexually-transmitted diseases, including HIV.
According to health worker Sergey Dubovsky: “We have a 100% growth in HIV infections in Moscow in just over a year.”

4. Trafficking has reached epidemic proportions

By Jim Kouri (Jim Kouri, CPP is currently fifth vice-president of the National Association of Chiefs of Police. He’s former chief at a New York City housing project in Washington Heights nicknamed “Crack City” by reporters covering the drug war in the 1980s. In addition, he served as director of public safety at a New Jersey university and director of security for several major organizations. He’s also served on the National Drug Task Force and trained police and security officers throughout the country. Jim holds a bachelor of science in criminal justice and master of arts in public administration and he’s a board certified protection professional.) “The Russian mob and human trafficking – Russian mobsters consort with terrorists, slave traders” Published at http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/kouri/050719.
Published July 18, 2005; accessed June 22, 2010

“Over the past decade, trafficking in human beings has reached epidemic proportions. No country is immune. The search for work abroad has been fueled by economic disparity, high unemployment and the disruption of traditional livelihoods. Traffickers face few risks and can earn huge profits by taking advantage of large numbers of potential immigrants. Trafficking in human beings is a crime in which victims are moved from poor environments to more affluent ones, with the profits flowing in the opposite direction, a pattern often repeated at the domestic, regional and global levels. It is believed to be growing fastest in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.”

5. Prostitution surge

By Matthew Chance (a senior international correspondent for CNN based in Moscow. Chance grew up in Stourbridge, England, and previously worked for CNN in their London bureau. Some of the notable news stories he has covered include the 2001 war in Afghanistan, the 2005 London bombings, the ongoing Middle East crisis, the Beslan school hostage crisis, Russia under President Vladimir Putin’s leadership, the devastating 2005 Pakistan Earthquake, and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. He has recently reported on the conflict between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia.) From CNN (Cable News Network, almost always referred to by its initialism CNN, is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner.[1][2] Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage, and the first all-news television channel in the United States.)
“THE HUMAN TRAFFICKING PROJECT” Published at http://traffickingproject.blogspot.c…-industry.html.
Published July 20, 2008; accessed June 22, 2010

“Aid workers for groups fighting for women’s rights say Moscow is witnessing a surge in prostitution, including forced prostitution, as a result of Russia’s booming economy.”

Solvency

6. Tier Report spurred similar action in Finland

The US Department of State, Washington, DC June 14, 2010 “2010 Trafficking in Persons Report” http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/rm/2010/143107.htm

“The Trafficking in Persons Report has spurred action throughout the years by other countries to take a hard look at their internal efforts against trafficking. Finland is a good example. Just a couple weeks ago, they recently completed a self assessment similar to the United States of their trafficking in persons response, and we certainly look forward to other countries undertaking that type of self diagnostic.”

7. Tier 3 trafficking report progress

The US Department of State, Washington, DC June 14, 2010 “2010 Trafficking in Persons Report” http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/rm/2010/143107.htm

“Without a doubt, the United States continues to be the world leader on this issue. In the 10 years since President Clinton signed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act and the United Nations outlined the international community’s anti-trafficking standards in the Palermo Protocol, we’ve seen much progress. And as diagnosed by this year’s report, we still face a number of challenges.”

8.  Tier 3 success: Bosnia-Herzegovina

The US Department of State, Washington, DC June 14, 2010 “2010 Trafficking in Persons Report” http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/rm/2010/143107.htm

One success that I think is very noteworthy is that of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which this year is upgraded to Tier 1 on the report. Bosnia was on Tier 3 for many years at the beginning of this decade. And I think that a lot of people – for a lot of people, the global fight against human trafficking first came to people’s attention because of the widespread sex slavery and the widespread abuses in the Balkans during the various wars of the 1990s.

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