‘Case of the Week’ 1 (NCFCA): Expand the UNSC

Important Disclaimer: We pretty much just throw these together over the weekend, and don’t put a lot of work into them. Case of the Week cases are not subject to the same editorial process and stringent quality standards as the COG 2012 sourcebook, and are frequently contributed by non-COG authors. You may find material and sources in these cases that would not appear in the sourcebook. That said, we hope these cases will be useful to you; enjoy!

About the Author: Jacob Phillip debated in the NCFCA and Stoa for six years, qualifying to the national championships six times in four different events and receiving around 100 awards on the regional level. In addition, he has earned top honors in moot court, mock trial, and Model UN events. Jacob researches for COG.

1AC: Add Germany and Japan to the UNSC

By Jacob Phillip

The United Nations has long been the definitive voice for international issues. As former UN Assistant Secretary-General Prof. Ramesh Thakur noted, “Its Charter begins with the grand words, ‘We the peoples of the world’. The reality is that it functions as an organisation of, by and for member states.” However, in the United Nations, certain states have much more sway and much more power than other nations, simply because of when they joined. It is because my partner and I believe that the United Nations should once again be balanced in its representation that we stand Resolved: That the United Nations should be significantly reformed or abolished.

To clarify our terms before we look at the facts, let’s look at some…

Definitions

United Nations is defined as “The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.(United Nations, UN Homepage – “The United Nations at a Glance” Accessed June 28, 2012 http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/index.shtml)

United Nations Security Council, or UNSC, “The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. [later, in the same context] When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council’s first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible.” (United Nations Security Council Homepage, “UN Security Council: Background” Accessed June 28, 2012 http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_background.html)

With our terms defined, let’s first look to the Facts of the current system, also known as…

Inherency

Our case is a comparative-advantage case, meaning that if our plan is significantly advantageous over the current system as outlined in Inherency and Significance, then there is a substantial reason to pass the Affirmative plan.

Fact 1: Security Council is the Strongest Arm of the UN

Prof. Ilyana Kuziemko (PhD from Harvard University, Assistant Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University) and Prof. Eric Werker (PhD from Harvard University, Assistant Professor of Business Administration at Harvard University) “How Much is a Seat on the Security Council Worth? Foreign Aid and Bribery at the United Nations” Published by the Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 114 no. 5

“Since its inception in 1945, the United Nations has entrusted questions of global peacemaking to the Security Council. Given the council’s power to authorize multilateral sanctions and military action, its member have played a role in some of the most significant world events of the past 60 years, from the Korean War to the recent Gulf Wars.”

Fact 2: Germany and Japan are not Permanent Members

United Nations Security Council Homepage, “Membership in 2012” Accessed July 2, 2012 http://www.un.org/sc/members.asp

“The Council is composed of five permanent members — China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States — and ten non-permament members.”

The Nations of Germany and Japan are not permanent members of the Security Council, and as such cannot be immediately re-elected, which causes major problems, as we can see in…

Significance

Significance: Lack of Representation

In the United Nations, many times the money dictates action. For example, since the United States is the largest Donor to the UN, we have the strongest voice. However, the way the Security Council is set up, two of the largest donors lack that voice. According to RIA Novista, a Premier Russian News Source in February 2009:

RIANovista, (premier Russian News Source) February 26, 2009 http://en.rian.ru/russia/20090226/120313930.html

“Russia accounts for 1.2% of the UN regular budget (14th place). The largest UN donor is the United States (22% of the budget) followed by Japan (16.6%) and Germany (8.57%).”

Russia is a permanent Security Council Member, as well as China, who donates 3.1% of the UN Budget. The fact that these nations retain permanent status on the Security Council while Japan and Germany do not is undemocratic – Germany and Japan have very little say as to where the money goes, even though they donate over 25% of the UN’s total budget. As Prof. Ramesh Thakur notes:

Japan Deserves a Permanent Seat

Prof. Ramesh Thakur (PhD, Professor at Australian National University College of Asia and the Pacific, Author of over 30 books and 300 articles, former Assistant Secretary-General at the United Nations). African Security Review, November 3, 2004 http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/asr/13No3/EThakur.htm

“A third possible meaning would be in terms of economic weight, the argument on which Japan is included in most lists. That Japan bears a heavy financial burden in the UN system without permanent Security Council membership amounts to taxation without representation.”

In addition, the former President of France Jacques Chirac notes,

Germany Also Deserves a Permanent Seat

BBC News, quoting Former French President Jacques Chirac June 27, 2000, “Chirac pushes two-speed Europe” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/807923.stm

“The French president also called for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for Germany to reflect its increased global importance. [Because of] Germany’s engagement, its ranking as a great power, its international influence – France would like to see them recognised with a permanent seat on the Security Council,’ Mr Chirac said.”

It is time that we end the “taxation without representation” in the United Nations and once again give proper representation to the Nations of Germany and Japan, and end the post-World War II structure. To bring balance to the Security Council, we offer the following…

Plan

The Agency and Enforcement is the United Nations General Assembly, the Security Council, and any other necessary UN bodies.

We have one Mandate: The United Nations Charter will be amended to admit Germany and Japan as Permanent Members of the United Nations Security Council.

No Funding is required and the plan will take effect immediately [Timeline].

By adding Germany and Japan as Permanent Members to the United Nations Security Council, we gain several

Advantages

Advantage 1: Fair Representation

Both Germany and Japan have significant claims to becoming permanent members of the Security Council. By finally giving them a permanent membership, we can ensure fair representation. First, looking again to Japan. Prof. Ramesh Thakur states:

Prof. Ramesh Thakur (PhD, Professor at Australian National University College of Asia and the Pacific, Author of over 30 books and 300 articles, former Assistant Secretary-General at the United Nations). African Security Review, November 3, 2004 http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/asr/13No3/EThakur.htm

“Japan is the world’s second-biggest economy and contributes more to the UN regular budget than four permanent members combined (Britain, China, France, and Russia). There is growing resentment at being treated as an ATM at the service of the United Nations.”

Japan deserves a voice so that their money is not idly spent without their say. And Germany has the same claim. Again, from Prof. Thakur:

Prof. Ramesh Thakur (PhD, Professor at Australian National University College of Asia and the Pacific, Author of over 30 books and 300 articles, former Assistant Secretary-General at the United Nations). African Security Review, November 3, 2004 http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/asr/13No3/EThakur.htm

“Germany is Europe’s biggest and the world’s third-largest economy. It has begun to play an increasingly active role in world affairs, is contributing more militarily, and demonstrated the capacity to be independent of Washington on the Iraq war.”

It is time that we make Representation fair in the Security Council again, by passing the affirmative plan.

Advantage 2: Balanced Representation

By allowing Germany and Japan to be admitted to permanent seats, we allow for balanced representation. For example, in the Security Council, in its current state, Russia and China hold much sway in their anti-American alliance and can easily kill US-backed resolutions with a veto. The way to counter this aggression would be to balance out the Security Council with nations such as Japan, who would balance out the Chinese aggression. And as the European Union is running into money problems, Germany will need to have a definitive say in the UN to effectuate real change in the EU. By passing the affirmative plan, we finally balance out the Security Council and make it widely represented.

Conclusion

Although there are times when the organization has faltered, the United Nations has been invaluable in combating human rights abuses. The United Nations Security Council has long been the arm of change in the UN, and those who contribute the most should have a say as to where the money goes. By passing the Affirmative plan, we can finally secure this fairness and allow the Security Council to function more effectively than ever.

Backup: Expand the UNSC

UNSC is unrepresentative – goes against UN Charter

C. Eduardo Vargas Toro (project manager for refugee & conflict issues & political advocacy at Intersections International, worked with the UN Office of Caritas Internationalis on a variety of refugee issues, M.A. from the John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy & International Relations at Seton Hall University) November 8th 2008, Published by “American Diplomacy”, a subset of the University of North Carolina http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/item/2008/1012/comm/vargas_un.html

“It is evident that the Security Council is not representative of today’s world. It lacks adequate representation of the developing nations that account for far more than half of the world’s population. This non–proportional representation of the non–P–5 member states in the Security Council gives them less ownership “in the maintenance of peace and international security” as stipulated in the Charter. Furthermore, the permanence and privileges in the Security Council of the countries that won World War II is no longer justified, for only the United States can still claim such great power status.”

Urgent need for reform

Dr. James A. Paul (PhD, New York University, Degrees from Oxford and Harvard, Founder and Executive Director for the Global Policy Forum) & Céline Nahory (Senior Advisor to the Global Policy Forum, Studied at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Switzerland and New York University) July 13, 2005 http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/200/41131.html

“In a world torn by war and violence, we need a far better Security Council to promote international peace and security and defend international law. Since the Council plays a much more active role than in the past, its failures are more evident and its reform is more urgent than ever.”

Germany and Japan are already vital to UNSC actions

Prof. Bruce Russett (PhD, Yale University, Dean Acheson Professor of International Relations and Director, United Nations Studies, Yale University) “Security Council Expansion: Can’t, and Shouldn’t” Published by the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization in “Reforming the United Nations for Peace and Security”, March 2005 http://www.ycsg.yale.edu/core/forms/Reforming_un.pdf

“Further complicating matters, some states that were weak in the early years of their UN membership are now powerful and virtually necessary to the success of any Security Council action (for example Germany, Japan, and perhaps India).”

Japan wants membership, contributes strongly

Prof. Masatsune Katsuno (M.B.A., Ret. Professor, Keisen University, former Principal Officer, Office of the Secretary-General of the UN) “Japan’s Quest for a Permanent Seat on the United Nations Security Council” Published by the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Academic Foundation, January 2012 http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/09024.pdf

“On 21 September 2004, Prime Minister Jun’ichirô Koizumi expressed Japan’s eagerness to become a permanent member of the Security Council in a speech he made at the General Assembly, to the effect that Japan’s contribution to international peace and security was a strong enough basis for admission.”

Japan is second-largest contributor to UN budgets and peacekeeping

The Harvard International Review (Premier Journal on International Relations and International Affairs, run by the faculty, experts, and students of Harvard University) Bruemmer, Emily (Staff Writer For the Harvard International Review) June 22, 2006 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Harvard-International-Review/149520993.html

“Yet in addition to being the second–largest contributor to the United Nations’ regular budget, Japan also holds this distinction for the Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) budget.”

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4 Responses to ‘Case of the Week’ 1 (NCFCA): Expand the UNSC

  1. David Huber says:

    Why shouldn’t we add the other eight non-permanent members? If it’s because they contribute less money, then the case is simply supporting the idea, that whoever pays the most has the most power.

  2. andrew says:

    Jacob Phillip, I noticed that some of the EV. is old. Germany and Japan are now the 3rd and 4th largest economies in the world, where can i find new EV. about that.

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